Bundesweite Durchsuchungen bei mutmaßlichen Mitgliedern der Gruppierung „National Socialist Knights of the Ku-Klux-Klan Deutschland“. Datum: Der Ku-Klux-Klan (KKK, englisch Ku Klux Klan) ist ein rassistischer und gewalttätiger, vor allem in den Südstaaten der USA aktiver Geheimbund. Der Klan war. Der Ku-Klux-Klan ist die älteste terroristische Organisation der USA. Der gegründete Geheimbund hat viele Jahrzehnte überlebt und ging.
Ku-Klux-KlanDer Ku-Klux-Klan ist ein politischer Geheimbund in den USA, der nach dem. Bundesweite Durchsuchungen bei mutmaßlichen Mitgliedern der Gruppierung „National Socialist Knights of the Ku-Klux-Klan Deutschland“. Datum: Am allermeisten hasse ich diese schwarzen Ratten”: Mit derben Sprüchen beeeindruckte Ron Stallworth die US-amerikanischen Rassisten.
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Landry Parish had a registered Republican majority of 1,, after the murders, no Republicans voted in the fall elections.
White Democrats cast the full vote of the parish for President Grant's opponent. The KKK killed and wounded more than black Republicans, hunting and chasing them through the woods.
Thirteen captives were taken from jail and shot; a half-buried pile of 25 bodies was found in the woods. The KKK made people vote Democratic and gave them certificates of the fact.
In the April Georgia gubernatorial election, Columbia County cast 1, votes for Republican Rufus Bullock. By the November presidential election , Klan intimidation led to suppression of the Republican vote and only one person voted for Ulysses S.
Klansmen killed more than African Americans in a county [ which? Milder encounters, including some against white teachers, also occurred.
In Mississippi , according to the Congressional inquiry:. One of these teachers Miss Allen of Illinois , whose school was at Cotton Gin Port in Monroe County , was visited Each man wore a long white robe and his face was covered by a loose mask with scarlet stripes.
She was ordered to get up and dress which she did at once and then admitted to her room the captain and lieutenant who in addition to the usual disguise had long horns on their heads and a sort of device in front.
The lieutenant had a pistol in his hand and he and the captain sat down while eight or ten men stood inside the door and the porch was full.
They treated her "gentlemanly and quietly" but complained of the heavy school-tax, said she must stop teaching and go away and warned her that they never gave a second notice.
She heeded the warning and left the county. By , two years after the Klan's creation, its activity was beginning to decrease.
Many influential Southern Democrats feared that Klan lawlessness provided an excuse for the federal government to retain its power over the South, and they began to turn against it.
Hill stating "that some of these outrages were actually perpetrated by the political friends of the parties slain. Union Army veterans in mountainous Blount County, Alabama , organized "the anti-Ku Klux".
They put an end to violence by threatening Klansmen with reprisals unless they stopped whipping Unionists and burning black churches and schools.
Armed blacks formed their own defense in Bennettsville, South Carolina , and patrolled the streets to protect their homes.
National sentiment gathered to crack down on the Klan, even though some Democrats at the national level questioned whether the Klan really existed, or believed that it was a creation of nervous Southern Republican governors.
In January , Pennsylvania Republican senator John Scott convened a congressional committee which took testimony from 52 witnesses about Klan atrocities, accumulating 12 volumes.
In February, former Union general and congressman Benjamin Franklin Butler of Massachusetts introduced the Civil Rights Act of Ku Klux Klan Act.
This added to the enmity that Southern white Democrats bore toward him. The governor of South Carolina appealed for federal troops to assist his efforts in keeping control of the state.
A riot and massacre occurred in a Meridian, Mississippi , courthouse, from which a black state representative escaped by fleeing to the woods.
In , President Ulysses S. Grant signed Butler's legislation. The Ku Klux Klan Act and the Enforcement Act of were used by the federal government to enforce the civil rights provisions for individuals under the constitution.
The Klan refused to voluntarily dissolve after the Klan Act, so President Grant issued a suspension of habeas corpus and stationed federal troops in nine South Carolina counties by invoking the Insurrection Act of The Klansmen were apprehended and prosecuted in federal court.
Judges Hugh Lennox Bond and George S. Bryan presided over the trial of KKK members in Columbia, South Carolina, during December Klan leader Nathan Bedford Forrest boasted that the Klan was a nationwide organization of , men and that he could muster 40, Klansmen within five days notice.
However, the Klan had no membership rosters, no chapters, and no local officers, so it was difficult for observers to judge its membership.
In , a federal grand jury determined that the Klan was a " terrorist organization"  and issued hundreds of indictments for crimes of violence and terrorism.
Klan members were prosecuted, and many fled from areas that were under federal government jurisdiction, particularly in South Carolina.
Forrest called for the Klan to disband in , arguing that it was "being perverted from its original honorable and patriotic purposes, becoming injurious instead of subservient to the public peace".
In many states, officials were reluctant to use black militia against the Klan out of fear that racial tensions would be raised. This and extensive violence and fraud at the polls caused the Republicans to lose their majority in the state legislature.
Disaffection with Holden's actions contributed to white Democratic legislators impeaching him and removing him from office, but their reasons for doing so were numerous.
Klan operations ended in South Carolina  and gradually withered away throughout the rest of the South.
Attorney General Amos Tappan Ackerman led the prosecutions. By , the federal government's evident willingness to bring its legal and coercive authority to bear had broken the Klan's back and produced a dramatic decline in violence throughout the South.
So ended the Reconstruction career of the Ku Klux Klan. New groups of insurgents emerged in the mids, local paramilitary organizations such as the White League , Red Shirts , saber clubs, and rifle clubs, that intimidated and murdered black political leaders.
In , the Supreme Court ruled in United States v. Harris that the Klan Act was partially unconstitutional. It ruled that Congress's power under the Fourteenth Amendment did not include the right to regulate against private conspiracies.
It recommended that persons who had been victimized should seek relief in state courts, which were entirely unsympathetic to such appeals. Klan costumes, also called " regalia ", disappeared from use by the early s,  after Grand Wizard Forrest called for their destruction as part of disbanding the Klan.
The Klan was broken as an organization by In the film The Birth of a Nation was released, mythologizing and glorifying the first Klan and its endeavors.
The second Ku Klux Klan was founded in by William Joseph Simmons at Stone Mountain , near Atlanta, with fifteen "charter members".
The new organization and chapters adopted regalia featured in The Birth of a Nation ; membership was kept secret by wearing masks in public.
Director D. Griffith 's The Birth of a Nation glorified the original Klan. The film was based on the book and play The Clansman: A Historical Romance of the Ku Klux Klan , as well as the book The Leopard's Spots , both by Thomas Dixon Jr.
Much of the modern Klan's iconography is derived from it, including the standardized white costume and the burning cross.
Its imagery was based on Dixon's romanticized concept of old England and Scotland, as portrayed in the novels and poetry of Sir Walter Scott.
The film's influence was enhanced by a false claim of endorsement by President Woodrow Wilson. Dixon was an old friend of Wilson's and, before its release, there was a private showing of the film at the White House.
A publicist claimed that Wilson said, "It is like writing history with lightning, and my only regret is that it is all so terribly true.
The White House issued a denial of the "lightning" quote, saying that he was entirely unaware of the nature of the film and at no time had expressed his approbation of it.
The first and third Klans were primarily Southeastern groups aimed against blacks. The second Klan, in contrast, broadened the scope of the organization to appeal to people in the Midwestern and Western states who considered Roman Catholics, Jews, and foreign-born minorities to be anti-American.
The Second Klan saw threats from every direction. According to historian Brian R. Farmer, "two-thirds of the national Klan lecturers were Protestant ministers".
Colescott of Indiana took over as imperial wizard, opposition to Communism became another primary aim of the Klan. New Klan founder William J.
Simmons joined 12 different fraternal organizations and recruited for the Klan with his chest covered with fraternal badges, consciously modeling the Klan after fraternal organizations.
The organizer kept half the money and sent the rest to state or national officials. When the organizer was done with an area, he organized a rally, often with burning crosses, and perhaps presented a Bible to a local Protestant preacher.
He left town with the money collected. The local units operated like many fraternal organizations and occasionally brought in speakers.
Simmons initially met with little success in either recruiting members or in raising money, and the Klan remained a small operation in the Atlanta area until The group produced publications for national circulation from its headquarters in Atlanta: Searchlight — , Imperial Night-Hawk — , and The Kourier.
The second Klan grew primarily in response to issues of declining morality typified by divorce , adultery , defiance of Prohibition, and criminal gangs in the news every day.
The Klan had a nationwide reach by the mids, with its densest per capita membership in Indiana. It became most prominent in cities with high growth rates between and , as rural Protestants flocked to jobs in Detroit and Dayton in the Midwest, and Atlanta , Dallas , Memphis , and Houston in the South.
Close to half of Michigan's 80, Klansmen lived in Detroit. Members of the KKK swore to uphold American values and Christian morality, and some Protestant ministers became involved at the local level.
However, no Protestant denomination officially endorsed the KKK;  indeed, the Klan was repeatedly denounced by the major Protestant magazines, as well as by all major secular newspapers.
Historian Robert Moats Miller reports that "not a single endorsement of the Klan was found by the present writer in the Methodist press, while many of the attacks on the Klan were quite savage.
The Southern Baptist press condoned the aims but condemned the methods of the Klan. Many nationally and regionally prominent churchmen did condemn it by name, and none endorsed it.
The second Klan was less violent than either the first or third Klan were. However, the second Klan, especially in the Southeast, was not an entirely non-violent organization.
The most violent Klan was in Dallas, Texas. In April , shortly after they began gaining popularity in the area, the Klan kidnapped Alex Johnson, a black man who had been accused of having sex with a white woman.
They burned the words KKK into his forehead and gave him a severe beating by a riverbed. The police chief and district attorney refused to prosecute, explicitly and publicly stating they believed that Johnson deserved this treatment.
Encouraged by the approval of this whipping, the Dallas KKK whipped 68 people by the riverbed in alone. Although Johnson had been black, most of the Dallas KKK's whipping victims were white men who were accused of offenses against their wives such as adultery, wife beating, abandoning their wives, refusing to pay child support or gambling.
Far from trying to hide its vigilante activity, the Dallas KKK loved to publicize it. The Dallas KKK often invited local newspaper reporters to attend their whippings so they could write a story about it in the next day's newspaper.
The Alabama KKK was less chivalrous than the Dallas KKK was and whipped both white and black women who were accused of fornication or adultery. Although many people in Alabama were outraged by the whippings of white women, no Klansmen were ever convicted for the violence.
In Simmons handed the day-to-day activities of the national office over to two professional publicists, Elizabeth Tyler and Edward Young Clarke. It appealed to new members based on current social tensions, and stressed responses to fears raised by defiance of Prohibition and new sexual freedoms.
It emphasized anti-Jewish , anti-Catholic , anti-immigrant and later anti-Communist positions. It presented itself as a fraternal, nativist and strenuously patriotic organization; and its leaders emphasized support for vigorous enforcement of Prohibition laws.
It expanded membership dramatically to a peak of 1. By the s, most of its members lived in the Midwest and West.
Nearly one in five of the eligible Indiana population were members. In the South, where the great majority of whites were Democrats, the Klansmen were Democrats.
In the rest of the country, the membership comprised both Republicans and Democrats, as well as independents. Klan leaders tried to infiltrate political parties; as Cummings notes, "it was non-partisan in the sense that it pressed its nativist issues to both parties".
Klan leaders hope to have all major candidates competing to win the movement's endorsement. The Klan's leadership wanted to keep their options open and repeatedly announced that the movement was not aligned with any political party.
This non-alliance strategy was also valuable as a recruiting tool. The Klan drew its members from Democratic as well as Republican voters.
If the movement had aligned itself with a single political party, it would have substantially narrowed its pool of potential recruits. Religion was a major selling point.
Kelly J. Baker argues that Klansmen seriously embraced Protestantism as an essential component of their white supremacist, anti-Catholic, and paternalistic formulation of American democracy and national culture.
Their cross was a religious symbol, and their ritual honored Bibles and local ministers. But no nationally prominent religious leader said he was a Klan member.
Economists Fryer and Levitt argue that the rapid growth of the Klan in the s was partly the result of an innovative, multi-level marketing campaign.
They also argue that the Klan leadership focused more intently on monetizing the organization during this period than fulfilling the political goals of the organization.
Local leaders profited from expanding their membership. Historians agree that the Klan's resurgence in the s was aided by the national debate over Prohibition.
In , two hundred Klan members set fire to saloons in Union County, Arkansas. Membership in the Klan and in other Prohibition groups overlapped, and they sometimes coordinated activities.
A significant characteristic of the second Klan was that it was an organization based in urban areas, reflecting the major shifts of population to cities in the North, West, and the South.
In Michigan, for instance, 40, members lived in Detroit , where they made up more than half of the state's membership.
Most Klansmen were lower- to middle-class whites who were trying to protect their jobs and housing from the waves of newcomers to the industrial cities: immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe, who were mostly Catholic or Jewish; and black and white migrants from the South.
As new populations poured into cities, rapidly changing neighborhoods created social tensions. Because of the rapid pace of population growth in industrializing cities such as Detroit and Chicago, the Klan grew rapidly in the Midwest.
The Klan also grew in booming Southern cities such as Dallas and Houston. In the medium-size industrial city of Worcester, Massachusetts , in the s, the Klan ascended to power quickly but declined as a result of opposition from the Catholic Church.
There was no violence and the local newspaper ridiculed Klansmen as "night-shirt knights". Half of the members were Swedish Americans , including some first-generation immigrants.
The ethnic and religious conflicts among more recent immigrants contributed to the rise of the Klan in the city. Swedish Protestants were struggling against Irish Catholics, who had been entrenched longer, for political and ideological control of the city.
In some states, historians have obtained membership rosters of some local units and matched the names against city directory and local records to create statistical profiles of the membership.
Big city newspapers were often hostile and ridiculed Klansmen as ignorant farmers. Detailed analysis from Indiana showed that the rural stereotype was false for that state:.
Indiana's Klansmen represented a wide cross section of society: they were not disproportionately urban or rural, nor were they significantly more or less likely than other members of society to be from the working class, middle class, or professional ranks.
Klansmen were Protestants , of course, but they cannot be described exclusively or even predominantly as fundamentalists.
In reality, their religious affiliations mirrored the whole of white Protestant society, including those who did not belong to any church.
The Klan attracted people but most of them did not remain in the organization for long. Membership in the Klan turned over rapidly as people found out that it was not the group which they had wanted.
The lessening of social tensions contributed to the Klan's decline. The distinctive white costume permitted large-scale public activities, especially parades and cross-burning ceremonies, while keeping the membership rolls a secret.
Sales of the costumes provided the main financing for the national organization, while initiation fees funded local and state organizers.
The second Klan embraced the burning Latin cross as a dramatic display of symbolism, with a tone of intimidation.
Its lighting during meetings was often accompanied by prayer, the singing of hymns , and other overtly religious symbolism.
Griffith used this image in The Birth of a Nation ; Simmons adopted the symbol wholesale from the movie, and the symbol and action have been associated with the Klan ever since.
By the s, the KKK developed a women's auxiliary, with chapters in many areas. Its activities included participation in parades, cross lightings, lectures, rallies, and boycotts of local businesses owned by Catholics and Jews.
The Women's Klan was active in promoting Prohibition, stressing liquor's negative impact on wives and children.
Its efforts in public schools included distributing Bibles and petitioning for the dismissal of Roman Catholic teachers. As a result of the Women's Klan's efforts, Texas would not hire Catholic teachers to work in its public schools.
As sexual and financial scandals rocked the Klan leadership late in the s, the organization's popularity among both men and women dropped off sharply.
The second Klan expanded with new chapters in cities in the Midwest and West, and reached both Republicans and Democrats, as well as men without a party affiliation.
The goal of Prohibition in particular helped the Klan and some Republicans to make common cause in the North.
The Klan had numerous members in every part of the United States, but was particularly strong in the South and Midwest. In Indiana, members were American-born, white Protestants and covered a wide range of incomes and social levels.
Le gouverneur de la Virginie William M. Sous sa direction, les exactions du Klan reprennent de plus belle. Leur disparition fait la une des journaux [ ] , [ ].
Brown et le lieutenant colonel John D. Howard, quittent Fort Benning pour rentrer chez eux en voiture.
Edgar Hoover , le directeur du F. Les quatre hommes partent en voiture pour se rendre dans les environs du Capitole de Montgomery, lieu de dispersion de la marche.
Les Klansmen peuvent organiser avec eux des actes de terrorisme comme pour la tuerie de Greensboro [ ] , [ ]. Cela dit, les effectifs continuent de baisser.
Duke oscille entre discours acceptables et discours haineux, s'attirer la bienveillance des Blancs les plus conservateurs tout en mobilisant les brutes du Klan.
Le gouvernement est en train de tuer notre peuple, de pervertir nos enfants, avec l'appui des communistes. Butler [ ]. White Power!
Continuant leur tradition homophobe cf. The Organization was born in in the aftermath of the abolition of slavery.
In one South traumatized by the prospect of racial equality and humiliated by the defeat of the civil war, officers. The Ku Klux Klan Blog explains you that the racist movement was created more than years ago in the United States: three people were stabbed — one seriously — and 13 others were arrested during clashes between its members and opponents.
How do I join the KKK? The incident occurred Saturday in Anaheim, California, near Los Angeles, according to the Los Angeles Time.
Skip to content Category: News. Posted On : August 16, Published By : JohnyTim. Der Klan verschwand erst allmählich, jedoch nicht aufgrund öffentlichen Druckes, sondern weil er im Grunde genommen seine politischen Ziele erreicht und sich damit selbst überholt hatte: hatten die Demokraten wieder die Mehrheit im Repräsentantenhaus erhalten, zwei Jahre später war ihre Alleinherrschaft im Süden de facto wiederhergestellt.
Trotz allem wird die tatsächliche politische Macht des KKK der Rekonstruktionszeit heute oft überschätzt. Er war niemals auch nur annähernd in der Lage, die Vorkriegszustände wiederherzustellen, weder auf politischem Weg noch auf der Basis von Terrorübergriffen.
Februar hatte in Los Angeles D. Griffiths epischer Film Die Geburt einer Nation Premiere. Die Wirkung des Films auf die Bevölkerung war so enorm, dass sich der Hass auf Schwarze verstärkte und der Klan wieder eine breite Unterstützung in den Südstaaten bekam.
Man war der Meinung, dass den schwarzen Bestien Einhalt geboten werden müsse. Diese durch den Erfolgsfilm hervorgerufene Stimmung und die damalige allgemeine Meinung der amerikanischen Öffentlichkeit, den Bürgerkrieg und seine Ursachen und Auswirkungen als Fehler zu sehen, nutzte der ehemalige Methodistenprediger William Joseph Simmons , um den Klan wiederauferstehen zu lassen: Am Thanksgiving -Tag hielt er die erste Aufnahmezeremonie des Jahrhunderts am Stone Mountain östlich von Atlanta ab.
Er erweiterte das mythische Repertoire des Klans um das brennende Feuerkreuz, das heute als Symbol des KKK allgemein bekannt ist.
Diese Symbolik entnahm er ebenfalls Dixons Buch, das sich wiederum auf schottische Mythen berief. Dieser neue Klan erlebte einen regen Zustrom, vor allem weil die Gräueltaten der Rekonstruktionszeit bereits vergessen und durch Griffiths Film durch ein Bild des Heroischen ersetzt worden waren.
Gemeinsam mit dem für die Klan-Propaganda zuständigen Edward Young Clarke baute Simmons den Klan zu einem profitablen Unternehmen aus.
Aus kommerziellen und ideologischen Gründen wandte sich der neue Klan nun gegen Neueinwanderer , politisch engagierte Arbeiter und Gewerkschaftsfunktionäre , Intellektuelle , Juden , Katholiken und Gegner der bis bestehenden Alkoholprohibition , die so genannten Nassen wets.
Der Klan wurde von einer regionalen, bereits in Vergessenheit geratenen paramilitärischen Organisation zu einer nationalen Bewegung, die sich nicht mehr nur auf die Südstaaten beschränkte.
In den er Jahren breitete sich der Klan in den gesamten USA aus. Unter Evans stieg er zu einer mächtigen Geheimorganisation auf, der es gelang, hunderte Richter, Sheriffs und Bürgermeister klanfreundlich zu stimmen, und entwickelte sogar eine Partnerschaft mit der Pillar of Fire Church, die die Methodistin Alma Bridwell White gegründet hatte.
Neue Mitglieder bezahlten 10 USD Aufnahmegebühr, um den Klangruppen beitreten zu dürfen. Wenn dies geschehen war, wussten die Menschen, dass der Klan nun auch in ihrer Stadt war.
Dadurch, dass der Ku-Klux-Klan nun auch die amerikanische Flagge und heilige christliche Symbole wie z. Der Klan zählte 3 Mio.
Mitglieder und stand mit rund 4,5 Mio. Mitgliedern  auf dem Höhepunkt seines Einflusses. Einige aktive Ku-Kluxer waren sogar angesehene Politiker im Senat , im Repräsentantenhaus oder auf untergeordneter Ebene.
Sogar einzelnen Präsidenten werden Mitgliedschaften im Klan nachgesagt. Unter Evans war der Klan politisch am aktivsten, zudem steigerten sich die Terrorakte immens.
Der KKK setzte sich über bestehende Gesetze hinweg und agierte als eigene Macht im Staat. Es traten im Zuge der Emanzipation auch Frauen in den KKK ein, die eigene Gruppen wie Women of the Ku Klux Klan gründeten.
Zwischenzeitlich waren bis zu In diesen Zeiten entstanden jedoch auch die Knights of the Flaming Circle , die sich gegen den Ku-Klux-Klan organisierten.
Am Es kam jedoch immer öfter zu Streitigkeiten, Abspaltungen und separaten Klan-Gründungen. A potent force, it was largely responsible for the restoration of white rule in North Carolina , Tennessee, and Georgia.
Local branches remained active for a time, however, prompting Congress to pass the Force Act in and the Ku Klux Klan Act in The bills authorized the president to suspend the writ of habeas corpus , suppress disturbances by force, and impose heavy penalties upon terrorist organizations.
Ulysses S. Grant was lax in utilizing this authority, although he did send federal troops to some areas, suspend habeas corpus in nine South Carolina counties, and appoint commissioners who arrested hundreds of Southerners for conspiracy.
In United States v. Harris in , the Supreme Court declared the Ku Klux Klan Act unconstitutional, but by that time the Klan had practically disappeared.
It disappeared because its original objective—the restoration of white supremacy throughout the South—had been largely achieved during the s.
The need for a secret antiblack organization diminished accordingly. The 20th-century Klan had its roots more directly in the American nativist tradition.
It was organized in near Atlanta , Georgia, by Col. Researching the House: Other Primary Sources Researching the House: Bibliographies.
Researching the House: Secondary Sources Finding Aids for Official House Records. Featured Records Search: Explore Primary Sources.
Historical Highlights. Image courtesy of the Library of Congress On April 20, , President Ulysses S.
Wir informieren Dich in den sozialen Medien ber Neuigkeiten und Aktivitten von WestLotto Kukluxclan nutzen Kukluxclan die Mglichkeiten der sozialen Netzwerke, Kino Dachau Chan sagen. - NavigationsmenüSeit nicht mehr Geheimbund, erhielt der Klan in den er Jahren wieder etwas Zulauf.